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英语十大词类精讲(名词/冠词/代词)

发布日期:2021-12-24 00:33

本文摘要:第一课时 名词一、概述1、名词的属性:表现人或事物的名称抽象观点的词叫名词。2、名词分普通名词和专有名词。普通名词是表现某一类人或事物,或某种物体或抽象观点的名称。 如:teacher, desks, plates, milk, box等,专有名词表现某一特定的人、事物、地方团体、党派、国家机关、语言、节日等专用的名称。(运用)如:China, Chinese, Saturday, June, Green, Beijing, Olympic等。

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第一课时 名词一、概述1、名词的属性:表现人或事物的名称抽象观点的词叫名词。2、名词分普通名词和专有名词。普通名词是表现某一类人或事物,或某种物体或抽象观点的名称。

如:teacher, desks, plates, milk, box等,专有名词表现某一特定的人、事物、地方团体、党派、国家机关、语言、节日等专用的名称。(运用)如:China, Chinese, Saturday, June, Green, Beijing, Olympic等。

(专有名词的第一个字母要大写)二、可数名词与不行数名词1、可数名词是指表现人或事物,可以用数来计量的名词,有单复数之分。如:glass-----glasses; book---- books2、不行数名词是指所表现的事物不能用数来计量。如:paper, rice, water , milk, tea等。

3、有些名词在特定情况下由不行数变为可数名词。Light travels faster than sound; (light:光线,不行数)The lights are on. (light:灯,可数)4、不行数名词的量的表现不行数名词一般无法用数来盘算,前面不能用a或an或数词来表现数量,它的量往往借助于容器来表现。如:a glass of milk ------ four glasses of milka piece of paper------two pieces of papera bag of rice------three bags of rice三、可数名词的复数形式(识记、运用)1、可数名词在应用时有单复数之分,单数变复数有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

规则变化/情 况/变化形式/例①一般情况加-s:girls; books;②以s,x,ch,sh末端的名词加-es:classes; boxes; watches;brushes③以辅音字母加y末端的名词变y为i, 加es:city---cities; baby---babies④以f或fe末端的名词变f,fe为v, 加es:knife---knives; leaf---leaves⑤以o末端的名词:potatoes; tomatoes;photos; kilos; bamboos; radios2、少数名词有不规则的变化形式policeman---policemen; man---men; woman---women;tooth---teeth; foot---feet; sheep---sheep; deer---deer;Japanese--- Japanese; Chinese --- Chinese; fish --- fish四、名词所有格(运用)名词的所有格是表现所有关系的形式,它也有组成上的变化。1、单数名词变所有格,只需在词尾加 ’ s;2、复数名词的词尾已有s,只需加 ’ 即可;3、复数名词的词尾若没有 s ,则应加’ s ;4、如果表现某人或物为两人所共有,则在第二小我私家后面加’ s ;如:Da Mao and Xiao Mao’s room如果不是两人共有,则在每小我私家后面都加 ’ s;如:Li Lei’s and Tom’s mother5、名词所有格结构通常用于表现有生命的名词,或表现时间、距离、所在等,而表现无生命名词的所有关系则用“of”表现。

如: the windows of house the picture of the familyof 结构也能用于有生命名词的所有格。a friend of my sister’s a book of his第二课时 冠 词(一)一、概述冠词是一种虚词,在句子中不重读,自己不能独立使用。在汉语中没有这个词类。

在学习冠词时,要注意这种加在名词前资助说明名词所指的人或事物的词表现数量“一”时,与数词的区别;其表现“数量”的意义没有“one”强,这是学习中注意区此外。二、冠词的界说冠词是置于名词之前,说明名词所表现的人或事物的一种虚词,它不能脱离名词而单独存在。冠词有两种:一种是定冠词(the Definite Article);the一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article). a an三、不定冠词的用法a用于辅音音素起首的单词前,an用于元音音素起首的单词前。

1、当第一次提到某人或某物时,用a或an起先容作用,如:What is this? It is a bus.Who is she?She is a doctor.2、表现泛指一类人或物A snake is a cold-blood animal.A plane is a machine that can fly.3、表现某一类人或事物的任何一个。如:She is a teacher;That is an apple.There is an elephant in the zoo.4、可用于某些词组,是该词组不行缺少的组成部门。如:a long timea littlea fewat a timehave a trytake a chance5、表现“每一个”的意思。

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如:three times a dayfour yuan a dozen6、可用于抽象名词之前,使抽象名词详细化。如:I am quite at a loss;The little child is a joy to his parents.7、用于物质名词之前,使物质名词普通化。如:He drew out a tin of pineapple.They made a fire to get warm.注意:1、不定冠词an用在以元音(不是字母,而是发音)起首的名词或其他以元音起首的词之前,不定冠词a用在以辅音起首的名词或其他以辅音起首的词之前。

2、u和h有时在单词中发元音,有时却读作辅音或不发音。如:I have been waiting for an hour.He is an honest young fellow.A hammer is a useful fool.3、英语中有些字母,如f h l m n s x。由于它前头第一个音是元音,所以在单独使用或作缩略词的第一个字母时,应使用“an”,如:There is an “n” in the word “no”.An MP means a member of parliament.第三课时 冠 词(二)一、定冠词的用法定冠词the 有this, that, these, those等意思,用于单数或复数名词前。

主要用来特指,使一个或几个事物区别于所有其他同名的事物。1、指前文已经提到过的人或事物。

如:I wrote an article. The article was about physics.2、指说话人都知道的人或事物。如:Please close the door before you leave.Let’s go to the classroom.3、名词有定语修饰时,须用定冠词the,表现特指意义。如:The book on the desk is his.The teacher who talked with you is her mother.4、用于世界上唯一无二的事物前。

如:the sunthe moonthe earththe skythe world5、用在序数词前面表现顺序。如:I live on the fourth floor.My mother is always the first one to come and the last one to leave.6、与其他词连用,组成牢固词组。如:on the leftin the northin the front of7、在表现乐器名称的名词之前用定冠词。

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如:the pianothe violin8、用在形容词或副词的最高级前面。如:This was the most interesting voyage we had ever had.He is the tallest of us.9、用在形容词前面,表现复数意义的某一类人或事物。如:the richthe poorthe youngthe livingthe newthe rightthe truethe beautiful10、在表现江河、山脉、海湾、海峡、沙漠等专用名词之前加定冠词。

如:the Changjiang Riverthe Nilethe Alpsthe Himalayas11、用在年月、朝代、时代名词前。如:the Qin Dynastythe Ming Dynastyin the 50’sthe spring period12、和表现姓氏名词的复数形式连用,表现某姓氏一家人或匹俦二人。如:the Listhe Martins二、不用冠词的情况1、除一些特殊情况外,专用名词以及抽象名词和物质名词前不加冠词。如:Man is mortal.Miss Smith came in power at last.2、当名词前已有this, that, my, his, any, every, some, no, those, these等词修饰时或有所有格修饰时,不必加冠词。

如:She is my sister.This article you had written is very wonderful.3、在交通工具、学科名称等名词前不加冠词。如:by planeby boatChinesePhysics4、在节日、沐日、星期、月份、季节等名词前不加冠词。

如:National DayMay DayAutumnJanuary5、在一日三餐、体育类等名词前不加冠词。如:He prefers milk and egg for breakfast.He preferred to play football and I’d rather play tennis.6、在唯一的职务、头衔的名词前不加冠词。如:He is elected manager of our company.People elected him president of that country last year.7、在报纸标题、图像说明、文章题目、标志、广告前不加冠词。如:Worker’s MindNotes on the Study of Hong Lou Meng8、在一些牢固词组中不加冠词。

如:at homeby mistakelearn by heartat firstat lastat onceby seaday and night第四课时 代 词(一)一、概述代词是用来取代名词或名词短语的词。代词的分类:人称代词:表现“我”、“我们”、“你”“你们”、“他、她、它”、“他们”的词叫人称代词;物主代词:表现所有关系的代词,分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词;反身代词:表现行动反射到执行者自己或用来增强语气的代词;指示代词:表现能替代名词或替代形容词的词;不定代词:表现不指明替代任何特命名词的代词。疑问代词:表现替代人或物且含有疑问语气的代词。

二、人称代词:第一人称/第二人称/第三人称/单数/复数主格:I/we/you/you,he, she, it/they宾格:me/us/you/you/him, her,it/them人称代词在句中可作主语、宾语、表语。1、主格在句中作主语,宾格在句中作宾语。She gave these books to you and me;You must look after them;2、当并列代词作主语时,I 放在最后。顺序为你,他,我You, he and I are going to spend the winter holidays in Beijing.三、物主代词物主代词包罗形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种,有人称和数不清变化形式。

第一人称/第二人称/第三人称/单数/复数形容词性:my/our/your/your/his, her, its/their名词性:mine/ours/yours/yours/his, hers,its/theirs形容词性物主代词只能作定语修饰名词,如:my watch; your books ; their names;名词性物主代词在句中可单独作用,可作主语、宾语和表语,后面不跟名词,英语中说:“我的一位朋侪”,要用“a friend of mine”。有些结构中常用the 替代物主代词He had a cold in the head.(the意思是his)My mother took me by the arm. (the意思是her)四、反身代词单数:myself/yourself/himself; herself; itself复数:ourselves/yourselves/themselves反身代词在句中可以增强语气,用作宾语和同位语。He himself has finished it .(作同位语)He has taught himself Russian for 5 years .(作宾语)I did it mysldf. (增强语气)某些牢固结构:by oneself; fo oneself; among themselvesThey made the machine all by themselves.He cooked a meal for himself.第五课时 代 词(二)一、指示代词指示代词有:this; that; these; thosethis, these 表现“这”、“这些”,是“近指”。

that, those表现“那”、“那些”,是“远指”。注意:在电话用语内里,用this取代自己,that取代对方。如:who’s that? This is Tom speaking二、不定代词英语中有以下不定代词:all, each, every, both, either, neither, one, none, little(a little), few(a few), many, much, other, another, some, any, no另有由some, any , no every组成的代词。1)both, allboth 是指“两者都”,而all则是指“三者或三者以上都”,如:Both of us are right.All of you are good at playing basketball.但all 还可以组成牢固短语 all day, all this, all the time等2) either, neithereither 是指“两者之中任何一个……“属于部门否认,而neither则是“两者之中一个也不……“属全部否认Either of the books will do.Neither of the answers is right.而either还可泛起在否认句子里,可与neither举行句型转换。

如:Tom hasn’t been to America, Jim hasn’t, either= Neither Tom nor Jim has been to America.而neither (nor) 也可用于表现“也不……”,组成“neither (nor) +助动词+主语”的句式。Kate isn’t a worker, neither is Meimei.3) little, a little, few, a fewlittle, a little修饰不行数名词; few , a few修饰可数名词;little, few表现否认,“险些没有”a little, a few表现肯定,相当于some, any.There is a little milk in the glass.There are few students in the classroom, they’re in the reading-room.4) every, eachevery, each都是强调每一个,every 作定语修饰名词。如:The bus comes every five minutes.Each of them may come at a different time.5) some , any6) 由some, any, no, every组成的不定代词something, someone, somebody, somewhere, anything, anyone, anybody, anywhere, nothing, none, nobody, nowhere, everything,everyone, everybody, everywhere.三、疑问代词疑问代词用来组成疑问句,一共有五个:who, whom, whose, what, which.。


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